Structural biology has generated a wealth of knowledge in understanding how primary amino acid sequence relates to 3D structure and how 3D structure relates to function. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures protein-protein complexes and protein-ligand complexes has provided insight on how interactions take place on a molecular and sometimes even an atomic  level. This knowledge base has provided a means in which to design proteins with modified, enhanced or even novel functionality. The applications for protein engineering are endless and the therapeutic potential is very great. However, protein engineering and the design of proteins must be confirmed in vitro. PhyTip columns are a tool used to purify all the protein variants of a protein or antibody engineering campaign. These pure proteins are then compatible with the functional assay to generate results that  the researcher is confident in. This is in contrast to crude lysate studies that are widely used where flase positives, false negatives and artifacts are a matter of fact.

Functional screens often performed on crude lysates. Use PhyTip columns for cleanup to remove artifacts, false positives and false negatives.